Land for Wildlife has conducted biodiversity surveys on member properties since 2007. They are an important tool in determining the success of land management activities carried out and to create a better understanding of species population dynamics in areas of mixed land use. The information gathered from the surveys adds to the knowledge of species distributions in areas that may otherwise pose access issues to do with land tenure and ownership.
Traditionally, the biodiversity surveys are conducted on Land for Wildlife properties only and involve trapping for a range of wildlife, including reptiles, frogs, mammals and invertebrates, as well as conducting visual transect surveys for birds. In 2017, as part of National Bird Week, Land for Wildlife took the aim of conducting a biodiversity survey targeted only at birds that visit the water baths provided on both rural and urban blocks so that Garden for Wildlife members would have an opportunity to take part in the process.
The survey was conducted using camera traps, which are small cameras housed within a pelican case that is responsive to movement. The camera is operated through infra-red sensors that detect movement and initiate recording. Three brands of camera trap were used for the survey, which included Reconyx (4), Bushnell (7) and Faunatech (1). Reconyx cameras were capable of taking still images, and were set to take 10 consecutive images following the detection of movement. Bushnell and Faunatech cameras were capable of taking moving footage, and were set to take 30 seconds of consecutive footage following the detection of movement. While Reconyx, Bushnell and Faunatech cameras are often called camera traps, they do not in fact capture the animal, but rather record its presence.
Cameras were set to run for a full day for each property. A total of 12 Garden for Wildlife members (including six in Eastside, three in Braitling/Northside, two in Larapinta, and one in Desert Springs) and seven Land for Wildlife members (including three at Ross, three at Ilparpa and one at Connellan) took part in the Bird Bath Biodiversity Survey 2017.
The Bird Bath Biodiversity Survey 2017 was an interesting exercise, highlighting the diversity of avian species that visit artificial or semi-natural water sources provided on urban, peri-urban and rural properties. A total of 566 visits to bird baths were recorded over the monitoring period. Overall, 22 species were observed in the camera traps, of which 16 were observed visiting Garden for Wildlife bird baths and 14 were observed visiting Land for Wildlife bird baths. The most common visitor to bird baths was the White-plumed Honeyeater and the Crested Pigeon, recorded at 10 properties each, whereas the Spiny-cheeked Honeyeater was the most persistent visitor to bird baths, visiting 111 times across all properties.
Table 1. Avian species visiting Land for Wildlife and Garden for Wildlife bird baths (^ Indicates an introduced species). Number of properties visited by species is recorded as all properties (Garden for Wildlife properties, Land for Wildlife properties). The list is ranked according to the number of properties visited.
|Common Name||Scientific Nomenclature||Number of Properties Visited by the Species||Total Number of Visits to Bird Baths Across All Properties|
|Grey Shrike-thrush||Colluricincla harmonica||1 (1,0)||1|
|Grey-headed Honeyeater||Lichenostomus keartlandi||1 (0,1)||1|
|Variegated Fairy-wren||Malurus lamberti||1 (0,1)||1|
|Mulga Parrot||Psephotus varius||1 (0,1)||1|
|Hawk||Accipiter sp.||1 (1,0)||2|
|Black-faced Cuckoo-shrike||Coracina novaehollandiae||1 (1,0)||2|
|Diamond Dove||Geopelia cuneata||1 (0,1)||2|
|Willie Wagtail||Rhipidura leucophrys||1 (0,1)||3|
|Galah||Eolophus roseicapillus||1 (1,0)||12|
|Zebra Finch||Taeniopygia guttata||1 (0,1)||12|
|Australian Ringneck||Barnardius zonarius||2 (1,1)||4|
|Magpie-lark||Grallina cyanoleuca||2 (2,0)||85|
|Peaceful Dove||Geopelia placida||3 (1,2)||4|
|Crow||Corvus sp.||3 (3,0)||8|
|Western Bowerbird||Ptilonorhynchus guttatus||4 (4,0)||10|
|Singing Honeyeater||Lichenostomus virescens||4 (2,2)||11|
|Brown Honeyeater||Lichmera indistincta||4 (3,1)||67|
|Spotted Turtle-dove ^||Streptopelia chinensis||6 (6,0)||22|
|Yellow-throated Miner||Manorina flavigula||6 (3,3)||33|
|Spiny-cheeked Honeyeater||Acanthagenys rufogularis||9 (7,2)||111|
|White-plumed honeyeater||Lichenostomus penicillatus||10 (7,3)||64|
|Crested Pigeon||Ocyphaps lophotes||10 (5,5)||110|
|Total Species Count||22 (16,14)|
|Total Visits to Bird Baths||566|
The Spotted Turtle-dove, an introduced species, was ranked 5th most common visitor at bird baths, recorded at six of the Garden for Wildlife properties monitored. Garden for Wildlife members can loan traps for free to help actively manage feral bird populations, as well as receiving instructions on how to make your own. Head to our website to see more information on feral dove control.
Several species were observed on only one property, which included four visiting Garden for Wildlife properties and six visiting Land for Wildlife properties. Of the species that visited several bird baths, the Western Bowerbird and the Spotted Turtle-dove were the only ones to visit Garden for Wildlife bird baths only. While the Western Bowerbird is known to visit rural bird baths, it wasn’t observed in this case. On the other hand, Spotted Turtle-doves are rarely seen south of Heavitree Gap and therefore their presence at the Land for Wildlife bird baths is not expected.
Garden for Wildlife properties recorded 10 species on a single property, with the Crouch and Heller properties coming out on top. The Land for Wildlife properties recorded 11 species on a single property, with the Kenna property taking the lead. While it is sometimes expected that there would be fewer species observed in urban areas, this was shown not to be the case in this survey. The Sweeney property received the most visits by birds to Garden for Wildlife properties, totalling 101 visits, irrespective of species. The Kenna property took the prize for most visits to Land for Wildlife properties, totalling 171 visits.
Full details on the Biodiversity Survey 2017, including images and species summaries for individual properties can be found in the survey report.
All the birds recorded in 20-minute intervals on Garden for Wildlife properties were entered into the Birdlife Australia Aussie Backyard Bird Count to provide the national group with some interesting data from our little central Australian town.
The Bird Bath Biodiversity Survey 2017 showed that there is a range of species that visited bird baths around the Alice Springs area within a one-day monitoring period. However there are over 200 species that can be found in and around Alice Springs. A comprehensive list of birds likely to be observed in the region is given in the Land for Wildlife fauna list.
If you feel that you could be attracting more birds to your garden, you could try some of the hints and tips from Land for Wildlife on the biodiversity fact sheet.
Are you interested in taking part in the next Land for Wildlife or Garden for Wildlife biodiversity survey? Head to the Land for Wildlife Biodiversity Surveys Page to find out more information.
Until next time, happy bird watching!
This biodiversity survey was conducted with Animal Ethics approval (Charles Darwin University Animal Ethics 12006 Landscape, fauna and flora survey and impact assessment in relation to mineral and petroleum exploration, infrastructure development and conservation initiatives throughout the Northern Territory), a Parks and Wildlife Commission NT permit (60855 Permit to Interfere with Protected Wildlife) and a Department of Primary Industry and Resources permit (026 Licence to Use Premises for Teaching or Research Involving Animals).
We thank the survey participants for allowing the Land for Wildlife team to visit and monitor the bird baths on their property. Appreciation goes to Parks and Wildlife Commission NT for use of several additional camera traps. Thanks also go to Birdlife Central Australia for identifying several bird species.
Land for Wildlife went along to the Territory NRM World Wetlands Day Event on February 1st at Simpsons Gap and were delighted to see all the frogs that have emerged following recent rains. Three species were present at the TNRM hosted event, including the Centralian Tree Frog (Litoria gilleni), Red Tree Frog (Litoria rubella) and Spencer’s Burrowing Frog (Platyplectrum spenceri). The Centralian Tree Frog is distinguished by its green colour and white spots on the back, while the Red Tree Frog is much smaller, can be grey to brown in colour and possesses a broad black stripe running down the side of the body. Spencer’s Burrowing Frog has large and irregular splotches of dark brown on a lighter fawn body, and has a somewhat distinctive shield or plate behind the back of the head.
There are two main lineages of frogs in Central Australia, the first two species observed belong to the Family Hylidae (or tree frogs) and the third belongs to the Family Limnodynastidae (the Australian ground frogs). While Spencer’s Burrowing Frog spends most of its life underground to avoid dehydration, and emerges only for short periods after rains, the Centralian Tree Frog and Red Tree Frog are unable to burrow and climb into humid microhabitats such as crevices and tree hollows close to permanent water.
Parks and Wildlife NT are running a host of Frog Nights throughout February – get along to a session to see the diversity of amphibians in our local waterways.
To learn more about World Wetlands Day (2nd February 2017), head to http://www.worldwetlandsday.org/
Are there frogs in your yard? Want to identify them? Pick up a copy of the Land for Wildlife production ‘Reptiles and Frogs of Alice Springs’ by Nic Gambold and Deborah Metters at any of our upcoming stalls and events. To find out more about this publication head to our Books for Sale webpage.
Birdlife Central Australia ran a summer Shorebirds count at the Alice Springs PowerWater stabilisation ponds on the weekend. The surveys are a part of the Shorebirds 2020 program, which aims to raise awareness about how incredible shorebirds are by engaging the community to participate in gathering the information required to conserve shorebirds, by conducting national shorebird population monitoring at over 150 key sites around Australia. You can follow Birdlife Central Australia on Facebook to see what other birds they find around Alice Springs.
Barb Gilfedder, who was organising the event, states that the Bar-tailed Godwit (Limosa lapponica) was the most significant bird seen on the day, with the Grey Teal (Anas gracilis) coming out on top as most common (500!) and runner up of White-headed Stilt (Himantopus leucocephalus; marked on the graph under the previous name of Black-winged Stilt, Himantopus himantopus).
My personal favourite was a toss-up between the Red-necked Avocets (Recurvirostra novaehollandiae) that were swooping overhead, and the Variegated Fairy-wren (Malurus lamberti), which is of course not a shorebird but is utterly delightful. Plus, there were a couple of visiting reptiles, such as the Long-nosed Dragon (Gowidon longirostris)… not a bird at all!
As coordinator of Land for Wildlife, which is hosted by Low Ecological Services P/L, I am fortunate to enjoy visits to the PowerWater stabilisation ponds on a somewhat regular basis to conduct water testing. It’s difficult to stay focused on the task at hand when there is such an amazing array of birds around. A few chicks have been making their way into the world of late (see last month’s Bird Breeding Bonanza post and the October/November newsletter).
Birdlife Central Australia has also helped me to identify some of the more common species that I have noticed around the ponds, including the Wood Sandpiper (Tringa glareola) and the Common Sandpiper (Actitis hypoleucos). A large Wedge-tailed Eagle (Aquila audax) is sometimes seen at the ponds (see the video), along with many Whistling Kites (Haliastur sphenurus). If you want to visit the ponds for birdwatching, see the PowerWater factsheet for more information.
Batchelor Institute Alice Springs camera trapping session in November 2016 shows a cat going into a trap for a feed and a couple of inquisitive crows.
Wedge-tailed Eagle (Aquila audax) seen feeding on some kill at the Alice Springs wastewater treatment ponds.
Many avian species are breeding in town at the moment, with young chicks and fledglings making their way out into the world. Several Masked Lapwing (Vanellus miles) chicks and Black Swan (Cygnus atratus) cygnets have been seen at the Alice Springs sewerage treatment ponds over the last couple of months.
In my own yard, I have had a pair of young Magpie-lark (Grallina cyanoleuca) that recently fledged their sturdy mud nest and the family of four have been busy catching tasty insects in the lawn ever since. There is also a diligent Crested Pigeon (Ocyphaps lophotes) sitting on a nest with its chicks and other young nearby – who look rather gangly and awkward but delightful none the less! The White-plumed Honeyeaters (Lichenostomus penicillatus) reported in the last newsletter are still hanging around and are now just as vocal as their parents, though no doubt they will eventually go off to find their own territory.
What have you got breeding in your area? Send your photos in to share with the members!
By Jen Kreusser
There are many people in Alice Springs who are considering turning their once-loved swimming pool into an oasis of a different variety, or perhaps installing an old child sand pit or pool, in the hope of creating a self-sustaining water-feature and extending the attraction to a diverse range of feathered visitors. Smaller features can be created by using old bathtubs or similar, which I have seen to be effective. The question is: How to do this in an arid, urban backyard?
Call out to our readers: We would like to hear from LfW members that have done this, or at least experimented with the concept – get in touch!
In the first instance, it largely depends on what your ambitions are – and the space and resources you have available. In order for the water to be attractive for birds and other animals to visit, access will need to be created. Creating shallow areas for waterbirds to stand and placement of low branches (old or living) near the water’s edge will encourage birds to come and drink.
Pros: Once established, it is likely to be visually aesthetic – creating a unique habitat for residents to enjoy and observe. It is also an opportunity to grow a variety of water plants (which will attract a greater diversity of insects, birds, frogs and reptiles).
Cons: Available fresh water is likely to attract predators, especially in hot dry summers (such as unwanted cats and snakes). Evaporation rates during summer are significant (similar to a regular swimming pool) and regular additions of water would be required (tank water is best).
It may take some time to establish and convert the pool into a safe and healthy water supply. Like many water ecosystems, it’s about balance! Keeping onto the balance of microorganisms (algae, bacteria) will be important as time goes on and you may wish to consider purchasing a pH testing kit to help. We are not experts on creating freshwater systems, though we would really love to hear from our members that have created these and we can share more in our next newsletter.
Of course, if you are a lover of the arid zone, you may wish to consider filling in the swimming pool space for creating a new arid (dry) landscape feature such as a sand dune or rocky garden. Remember, when considering which plants to include in the space it’s worth checking out Native Plants for Central Australian Gardens (Forth & Vinter, 2007).
– Jen Kreusser
After a couple of days of overcast weather, the skies have parted again and the birds are rejoicing. The Red-tailed Black Cockatoos (Calyptorhynchus banksii) were out in force at the office of Land for Wildlife this morning – screeching and parading around. Not surprising that they are active given their breeding season is a couple of months in and there is plenty of seed available after summer rains. Females lay a single egg in a tree hollow lined with chewed wood shavings and the male provides her food while the female is busy incubating the egg.*
Meanwhile at the Power Water Ponds, a Wedge-tailed Eagle (Aquila audax) had caught something of the feathered variety for a morning snack. It’s always a sight to see such a large bird standing over a kill – though the nearby swans didn’t seem too concerned for their own welfare.
* Readers Digest (1976). Complete Book of Australian Birds. (Readers Digest: Sydney, NSW)